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Arabic Literature الأدب العربي: Classical (Islamic Era) & Medieval Arabic Literature الأدب العربي الكلاسيكي و العصر الوسيط

This research and study guide aggregates resources useful for the study of Arabic literature of all periods. The guide serves as an introduction to resources available through Cornell University Library system.

Introduction مقدمة

Classical Arabic literature, for the purposes of this guide, dates from the mid- 7th century CE, ca. 660, or the period following the advent of Islam. It was directly influenced by the historical events of its time.  Literary material attributed to the first phase of classical Arabic poetry, the marthiya (الرثاء)and the qasida (قَصِيدَة) genres both continued to evolve, reflecting imminent societal concerns.  These included the development of Islam, as well as the cultural symbiosis produced by its rapid expansion.  Therefore, poetic expression expanded in directions, which encouraged exploration of the self, political commitment, and deeper meditation.  As a result, poetic themes transformed, producing three new genres: the love poem (ghazal غزَل), the political poem (al-Shi'r al-siyasi الشعر السياسي), and the ascetic poem (zuhdiyya زهدّيات). Moreover, the development of Arabic poetry at the end of the 7th century and beginning of the 8th century was accompanied by a significant renewal of literary prose. This was evident in an intense diversification of the art of rhetoric, which reflected the eloquence of oratory discourse in a variety of themes.  It was also apparent in the creation of a new genre, the epistle, written in a fluid direct style that used picturesque expressions and strongly accented rhythms. Finally, this transformation was evident in the acclimatization of the fable, such as Kalila wa-Dimna (كليلة ودمنة) a collection of Indian fables, translated into Arabic by Ibn al-Muqaffa ابن المقفع)) in the 8th century.  Thanks to the reciprocity of these exchanges, these literary forms also transferred to other languages and cultures, such as Persian and Turkish.  Through the originality of their content and elegance of style, these works inaugurated a new literary period that embodied the creative contributions from a diversity of cultures that are shared today.

صدر الإسلام  * العصر الأموي * العصر العباسي * عصر الدول المتتابعة * العصر الأندلسي

Classical Sources * Background & Reference

Literary Essays by Classical Arab Authors كتاب علم الأدب: مقالات لمشاهير العربJesuit scholar Louis Cheikho was born in Mardin, Turkey, and educated at the Jesuit school in Ghazīr, Lebanon. He remained associated with the seminary and its successor institution in Beirut, Université Saint-Joseph, throughout his life. Cheikho studied in Europe and eventually gained a world-wide reputation as a Semitist and authority on Eastern Christianity. Al-Machriq, the journal he founded in 1898, is a principal resource for scholars in these fields. It is supplemented by Melanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph and Proche-Orient Chrétien from the same publishers.

يُعد العمل المُقدّم هنا، وهو كتاب علم الأدب: مقالات لمشاهير العرب، ثاني مجلدين، وهو يحتوي على آراء بعض رواد الخطابة والبلاغة مثل ابن رشد وابن سينا وابن خلدون، أما النصف الثاني للكتاب فقد خُصِّص للشعر. يبدأ شيخو حديثه عن الشعر بمناقشة بعض آراء ابن رشد عن أرسطو. ومن هناك يتناول أهداف الشاعر مثل المدح والإقناع والاعتذار والسخرية مع ذكر مثال لكلٍّ منها. تعرَّض شيخو للنقد لبعض جوانب عمله، وذلك على الرغم من منزلته كباحث، حيث يرى البعض أن أعماله أفسدها ضيق الأفق والانحياز. وقد طُبع كتاب علم الأدب بعناية، فحركات التشكيل موضحة به بشكل كامل، كما أنه يتضمن تذييلاتٍ وفهرساً.                                      

Poetry

ابن حجة الحموي, تقي الدين أبو بكر بن علي, ?-1434  Ibn Ḥijjah al-Ḥamawī, Taqī al-Dīn Abū Bakr ibn ʿAlī, ?-1434 [al-Qāhirah]: al-Maṭbaʿat al-ʿĀmira [Būlāq], [1874] [القاهرة]: المطبعة العامرة [بولاق]، [1874]

 

ديوان مهيار الديلمي • مستودع الكتب • الموقع الرسمي للمكتبة الشاملة 

Abu'l-Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami was an Arabic-language poet of Daylamite origin during the Buyid period. Mihyar's poetry was dominated by metaphor, and he wrote in various poetic genres including ghazal, as well as writing elegies on Ali and Husayn ibn Ali

أبو الحسن - أو أبوالحسين - مِهيَارُ بن مروزيه الديّلمِيُّ (توفي 428 هـ / 1037 م) كاتب وشاعر فارسي الأصل، من أهل بغداد كان شاعرا جزل القول، مقدما على أهل وقته، وله ديوان شعر كبير يدخل في أربع مجلدات، وهو رقيق الحاشية طويل النفس في قصائده. ذكره الحافظ أبو بكر الخطيب في كتابه تاريخ بغداد وأثنى عليه

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