Dress Code: Background
There are all sorts of items of dress which are worn by Muslim women, and these vary all over the world. Sharia (Islamic law) does not require women to wear a burqa (Arab.:بُرقع; Persian: پرده ;Urdu: also known as chadri or paranja in Central Asia; transliterated burkha, bourkha, burka or burqu') is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions to cover their bodies when in public. Burqas belong to particular areas of the world, where they are considered normal dress. In other parts of the world the dress is totally different. The rule of dress for women is modesty; the word hijab(حجاب) means "cover," "screen," or "curtain,"and refers to both a specific form ofveilworn by some Muslim women and the modest Islamic style of dress in general.Muslim women are required to observe the hijab in front of any man they could theoretically marry. This means that hijab is not obligatory in front of the father, brothers, grandfathers, uncles or young children.Hijab does not need to be worn in front of other Muslim women, but there is debate about what can be revealed to non-Muslim women). Modesty rules are open to a wide range of interpretations. Some Muslim women wear full-body garments that only expose the eyes, although there is no Quranic text requiring this extreme. Some cover every part of the body except their face and hands. Some believe only their hair or their cleavage is compulsory to hide, and others do not observe any special dress rules.
Subjects Headings [Topic Tags]:Clothing and dress > Religious aspects (clothing and dress)Islam (clothing and dress)* Hijab (Islamic clothing) * Purdah *Veils > Religious aspects (veils)> Islam (veils)***Muslim women > Clothing * Burqas (Islamic clothing) -- Islamic clothing and dress - Veils....
- Muslim Dress This Subject Guide brings together key content from Bloomsbury Fashion Central’s wide-ranging platform. From eBooks to business cases, this guide is your springboard for Sustainability in Fashion.
S.A.: What's That You're Wearing? A Guide to Muslim Veils The New York Times Online, 4 May 2016, 506 words, (English)
Choice? Who Decides? (Statistics)
How people in Muslim countries prefer women to dress [.pewresearch.org, 1/2014].
Preferred dress for women in Muslim countries [The data was gathered as a part of the "Middle Eastern Values Study" conducted by the Michigan Population Studies Center. Q&A with author of the U. Michigan study.
- How people in Muslim countries prefer women to dress [pewresearch.org]
- University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research. Survey on preferred dress for women in Muslim countries.
- World Hijab Day Organization, Inc. (Non-Profit)
- Foroutan, Yaghoob (2021), Women’s Dress Codes in the Islamic Republic of Iran: State’s Gender Ideology Representation, Gender Issues 38 (2):121–133.
- Foroutan, Y. (2022), Demographic Analysis on Social Perceptions of Hijab in Contemporary Iran: Dimensions and Determinants, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 49, Issue 5: 736-746.
- Foroutan, Y. Women’s Dress Codes in the Islamic Republic of Iran: State’s Gender Ideology Representation,Gender Issues, (online first articles),
- Pious Fashion: How Muslim Women Dress - SAGE Journals
- Women and the Islamic Veil: Deconstructing implications of orientalism, state, and feminism through an understanding of performativity, cultivation of piety and identity, and fashion. (Thesis, Hofstra 2014?)
- An Islamic Perspective on Women's Dress / by Muslim Women's League. December 1997
- Islam and Hijab" BBC. Retrieved December 2015
- Women's Performances of the Veil from Street to Stage (surrey, UK, 2001)
- Muslim Women, Dress Codes and Human Rights
- Muslim Veils -- from Hijab to Burqa. Apologetics Index
- US Newspaper Representation of Muslim and Arab Women Post 9/11 (Diss. Gerogia State U. 2007)
- Freedom, Norms, and the Ban of the Muslim Veil in France 1830-Present / By Hilary Black.
- The French islamic headscarf Bill in a perspective of sociology of Law / ISP - Institut des Sciences sociales du Politique.
- Brent Luvaas, “Shooting Street Style in Indonesia: A Photo Essay.” Clothing Cultures 1, no. 1 (2014): 59-81.
- Annelies Moors, “NiqaBitch and Princess Hijab: Niqab Activism, Satire, and Street Art.” Feminist Review 98, Islam in Europe (2011): 128-35.
What the hijab means to me: From Nigeria to Uruguay, women share their thoughts and feelings about the hijab. [aljazeera.com/ 29 Nov 2016].
- Nondomination or Practices of Freedom? French Muslim Women, Foucault, and the Full Veil Ban / INES VALDEZ, Ohio State University. [American Political Science Review. Vol. 110, No. 1 February 2016].
List of Hijab Styles by Region The hijab, a religious headscarf, is worn by Muslim women to cover their hair and neck. It is an expression of their faith and personal relationship with God and it symbolizes modesty and privacy in Islam. Ultimately, it is the woman’s choice whether she prefers to wear one or not. Arab America's contribution writer, Caroline Umphlet, lists popular hijab styles from some Arab countries, varying by region. As a disclaimer, these are generalizations and of course, women from any country can wear the hijab as they prefer.
Required Dress Codes for Women (Islamic States) scaled 2008. womanstats.org/
“Aren’t you pretty? Unveil yourself!” Colonial poster (1958) enjoining Algerian Muslim women to stop wearing their veil, playing on double meaning of the word “unveil.” Similarly, the phrase “Aren’t you pretty?” is ambiguous in whether it exclaims “you are pretty!” or asks “are you hiding the fact that you’re not?”
Frantz Fanon’s first chapter of his book L’An V de la Révolution Algérienne (“The Fifth Year of the Algerian Revolution,” translated into A Dying Colonialism, 1959), entitled “Algeria unveiled.”
More on this story ...
- Austria to ban full-face veil in public places * 31 January 2017
- Women in face veils detained as France enforces ban * 11 April 2011
- Chechnya women's Islamic dress code: Russia blamed * 10 March 2011
- Barcelona to ban Islamic veils in some public spaces * 15 June 2010
- Belgian ban on full veils comes into force * 23 July 2011
- Why Muslim women wear the veil * 5 October 2006
Recommended * New
The Quran says that Muslim men – not women – should be the first to observe hijab / QASIM RASHID [30 March 2017] The Independent, U.K.
Men, please stop mansplaining the hijab to Muslim women / independent.co.uk,
As Muslim women, we ask you not to wear the hijab in the name of interfaith solidarity The authors argue that the Koran does not require women to wear a hijab, but that they are being bullied into covering themselves by conservative Shiite and Sunni sects. By Asra Q. Nomani and Hala Arafa washingtonpost.com @.
Turkish women unveiled [2006?] Video 1 videodisc (52 min.) New York, NY : Women Make Movies, [2006?] In English and Turkish with English subtitles "In this thought-provoking documentary, veiled and unveiled women explore relationships between Islam and secularism in present-day Turkey, where millions of women, many of them educated and urban, wear the headscarf or hijab."--Container.
Audiovisuals - Accessible
How do Muslims Think Women Should Dress? [BBC News, 7:20 mins.]
Gamal Abdel-Nasser Recalling a 1953 Conversation on Hijab with Muslim Brotherhood Ikhwan's General Guide.
Joan Wallach Scott on The Politics of the Veil + a series of short symposium interviews of experts, Bowen included, about the French headscarf affairs: [ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHsD5__5wuM&feature=related ] [ http://conversations.berkeley.edu/content/joan-wallach-scott].
Interview of the two Levy sisters, who in 2003 (before the March 2004 law) were expelled from French school for wearing hijabs. They appear with their father (who is Jewish while their mum is an atheist of Moroccan origin): http://www.ina.fr/video/I08357759/interview-lila-et-alma-levy-omari-video.html
Here, an exceptional document, the report (broadcast on French tv) on "The Veil, a French hysteria", which features the interview of one of the first 3 junior high school students expelled in 1989 from their school at the time of the very first hijab affair. She is now 40, living in Tunisia, and had never been interviewed before. She relates what actually happened during that campaign that led to their exclusion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U5F7k58RcU8
Two 50-mn documentary by the anthropologist of religions Agnes de Feo featuring French women who were the burqa and niqab, before and after it was banned (English subtitles):