Working with Text in Middle Eastern Languages

Introduction to Research | Cornell University Library 

Student papers and manuscript preparation

Chapter 11 of the Chicago Manual of Style explains how to work with Arabic, Hebrew, Persian and Turkish languages in your publications.

The International Journal of Middle East Studies has an alternative set of rules for manuscript preparation.  See also the IJMES Word List for spellings of common words from Middle Eastern languages.

For spelling vernacular words in English (from the Library of Congress):

Arabic Romanization tables (PDF)

Hebrew Romanization tables (PDF)

Persian Romanization tables (PDF)

Keyboards and Typing

MacOSX: Using System Preferences--Language and Text--Input Sources.  Select your preferred language.
QWERTY layout means letters you type will approximate the letters on the English keyboard ("L" will be "Lam" etc.) 
See Apple OSX Support for information about controlling the direction of the text.

Windows: Using Control Panel--Region and Text--Change Keyboards--Add. Select your preferred language. 
See Microsoft Windows Support for information about changing keyboards, layout, etc.

iOS: Select Settings--General--Keyboard. Arabic, Hebrew and Turkish are available .
For Persian, you'll need to find and download a third party keyboard in the Apple store because it's not supported natively. With an app, you can type in Persian, and copy-paste your text into other applications. 

Don't have an Arabic keyboard?

Arabic Keyboard ™ لوحة المفاتيح العربية This online tools is provided to write and search in arabic for Arab travelers or western users who do not have arabic keyboard.

Yamli - Arabic Search Engine and Smart Arabic Keyboard allows you to do Google searches in Roman characters which are translated on the fly into Arabic. Useful if you need a quick way to get correct spelling of a word in Arabic!

Access Our Library Anywhere! Off-Campus Authentication

Looking for an easier way to access Cornell resources from off campus? Try  Access Anywhere can be installed on the web browser of your choice. You must have your bookmarks bar visible in your browser to use. This guide includes the basic installation instructions for the Google Chrome, Firefox, Microsoft Edge and Safari web browsers. Instructions may vary depending on what version of the browser you are using

Help Tools

  • How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography: The Annotated Bibliography: Explanation, Process, Directions, and Examples (Cornell LibGuides)

  • RefWorks - Web-based system to manage your source citations and to create bibliographies and citations in text

  • Citation Machine - Interactive web tool for creating standard bibliographic and in-text citations in APA, Chicago, MLA, and Turabian style formats

  • DocsCite - Online tool to help put government publication citations into proper APA or MLA style format.

Citation Style Guides

Style guides show how to format citations for bibliographies, footnotes, and in-text citations in a consistent format that makes it easy for the reader to locate the source. If your instructor or publisher has not recommended a particular format or style, consult one of the commonly used style manuals, such as: APA, Chicago, MLA or Turabian.

Citing Sources: Style Manuals
Guide to style manuals owned in print format by ASU Libraries and to some online sources.

Research : Citation Management Citation Management Help

Please use  this form to submit questions or comments about citation management tools such as Endnote and RefWorks.

Date Converters

Subject Librarian

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Ali Houissa
174 Kroch Library
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY, 14853
(607) 254-1614