Skip to main content

Turkish and Ottoman Studies Research Guide: Language
Tools

A research and discovery guide to print and digital resources in Turkish & Ottoman studies from all time periods in original native and western languages.

Recommended

Ottoman works in the digital age The Research Center for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) develops a new system, the first of its kind, which allows researchers around the world to easily work on Ottoman documents.

Type - keyboard

Lexiqamus Osmanlıca Okuma Klavuzu for deciphering illigible words from Ottoman manuscripts. You will just have to fill in the legible letters and the program will list you a list of possible words.

Turkish Keyboard (Lexilogos)

Virtual Keyboard - Turkish

Turkic languages writing programs keyboard of modern turkic languages | ottoman turkish / arabic keyboard | gokturkish keyboard

Transliteration Systems

Language & Script History

The Turkish Alphabet

The language reforms initiated by Ataturk between the 1920s and 1930s, introduced a new alphabet and minimized Persian and Arabic loan words in the Turkish language.  With a new set of cultural and governmental institutions, the Modern Turkish Language transformed an entire generation of language learners.    The reformed language replaced Ottoman Turkish, which served as the administrative and literary language of the empire.

Most Turkish letters are similar in pronunciation to their English counterparts. There are a few letters however whose pronunciation is unique to Turkish.

"Yumuşak ge" (Ğ ğ) or "soft g" for example always follows a vowel and is pronounced in one of two ways. If the vowel before it is one of a, ı, o, u then "yumuşak ge" will lengthen the sound of that vowel, eg. yağmur, ağaç. If the vowel is one of e, i, ö, ü then "yumuşak ge" will be pronounced as "y", eg. eğitim, iğne. Since "yumuşak ge" is always preceded by a vowel there are no words in Turkish that start with it.

Pronunciation [ˈtyɾct͡ʃɛ] ( listen)

Turkish online.com

Turkish Alphabet with sounds:

 

A - a   as in  "ugly "

B - be  as in  "bell"

C - ce  as in  "jealous"

Ç - çe  as in "chair"

D - de  as in  "decade"

E - e   as in  "elephant"  

F - fe  as in  "federal"

G - ge  as in  "get"

Ğ - ğe*

H - he  as in  "helicopter"

I - ı  as in "number"

İ - i   as in  "insect"

J - je  as in  "azure" (garaj = garage, pronounced as in French & English)

K - ke  as in "kettle"

L - le  as in  "leg"

M - me  as in "men"

N - ne  as in  "never"

O - o   as in  "orchestra"

Ö - ö   as in "urge"

P - pe  as in  "pen"

R - re  as in  "red"

S - se  as in  "sell"

Ş - şe  as in  "shelf"

T - te  as in  "telephone"

U - as in  "oops!"

Ü - ü  as in "fruit, nude"

V - ve  as in  "vegetable"

Y - ye  as in  "yes"

Z - ze  as in  "zebra"  

*Türkçe'de Ğ harfi ile başlayan kelime yoktur.

*NOTE: There is no word that begins with the letter Ğ in Turkish.

grammar/alphabet

Turkish Basics provides elementary language resources to learners of the Turkish language. The site is aimed primarily at beginners at Turkish.

Grammar Guides and Language Lessons

Ottoman Turkish لسان عثمانى‎ Lisân-ı Osmânî عثمانلوجه

Ottoman Turkish language or Ottoman language (لسان عثمانى‎ Lisân-ı Osmânî ) is the variety of the Turkish language that was used for administrative and literary purposes in the Ottoman Empire. It is a highly demanding language, consisting of a Turkish base overlaid with often remarkably substantial lexical and grammatical borrowings from Arabic and Persian, and was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet.

Ottoman Turkish was largely unintelligible to the less-educated and rural Turks, who continued to use 'kaba Türkçe' ("vulgar Turkish"), which used far fewer foreign loanwords and which is the basis of the modern Turkish language. The Tanzimât era in the 19th century saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language (لسان عثمانی‎ lisân-ı Osmânî  or عثمانلوجه‎ Osmanlıca ) and the same distinction is made in Modern Turkish (Osmanlıca  and Osmanlı Türkçesi ).

Learning Turkish