Accountability I: Use News Sources with Explicit Editorial Policies & Ethical Standards
Look for journalistic standards of reporting. High-quality, investigative news sources have explicit editorial policies and follow a code of ethics or professional standards. Examples: Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ) Code of Ethics; Ethical Journalism Network's 5 Principles of Ethical Journalism.
Does the news source you are using have an explicit Editorial Policy?
Does it follow a Code of Ethics?
Lack of an explicit editorial policy or a statement of ethical standards is a red flag indicating suspect content.
Specific examples of editorial guidelines and standards of journalistic practice:
- BBC Editorial Guidelines
- The Guardian News & Media Editorial Code
- New York Times Standards and Ethics
- NPR [National Public Radio] Ethics Handbook
Accountable sources issue corrections for errors and inaccuracies they subsequently discover. Fake news sources are not accountable for their content. Fake news creates or uses content that is partially fabricated or contain misleading information as well as outright falsehoods.
Accountability II: Look for Qualified Article Authors
Accountable sources usually sign their stories and take personal responsibility for the content.
Articles should have bylines (the names of the authors). An individual or group of individuals take personal and professional responsibility for the accuracy of the information in the article. Lack of a byline is a red flag indicating suspect content.
Click on the byline if it's linked. Where does it lead?
Search for the authors' names. Is there a LinkedIn profile? some other form of biographical information? What have these writers done in the past? What background and experience qualify them to write on the article topic?