A note about URLs

If you found your reference in an academic database (like Proquest Congressional Publications, or Hein Online), the database URL is not included.

If you found your reference on the open web (for example, govinfo.gov, add the DOI (or, if a DOI is not available, the URL), after the final period.

See page 296 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (2020) for more information.

Sample references

Citing the Hearing as a whole:

In-text citation:

  • (The Constitution and Campaign Reform, 2000)
  • The Constitution and Campaign Reform (2000)

Reference list entry:

  • The Constitution and Campaign Reform: Hearings before the U.S. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, 106th Cong. (2000). URL

Citing Testimony given at a hearing:

In-text citation:

  • (The Constitution and Campaign Reform, 2000)
  • The Constitution and Campaign Reform (2000)

Reference list entry:

The Constitution and Campaign Reform: U.S. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, 106th Cong. (2000) (Testimony of Ira Glasser). URL