Unenacted bills or joint resolutions
United States House of Representatives, Bills and Resolutions Explained.
An unenacted bill
Note: An enacted bill is a law and should be cited as a statute.
Template for citing an unenacted bill:
Title [if relevant], H.R. or S. bill or resolution number, xxx Cong. (year).
- (We the People Act, 2016)
- We the People Act (2016)
- We the People Act of 2016, S.6, 114th Cong. (2016). URL
An unenacted joint resolution:
Note: Enacted (passed both Houses and signed by the President) bills and joint resolutions are laws and should be cited as statutes. There is one exception: Constitutional Amendments that pass both Houses of Congress do not go to the president, but instead are sent out to the states to be ratified.
Because this is a very long title, it may be best to present it narratively, e.g.,
- To address this concern, Representative so-and-so introduced, "Proposing An Amendment To The Constitution Of The United States Limiting The Number Of Times Senators And Representatives May Be Elected" (2012).
- Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States limiting the number of times Senators and Representatives may be elected, H.R.J.Res. 105, 112th Cong. (2012). URL
A joint resolution originating in the Senate would be S.J.Res.
Unenacted Simple Resolutions and Concurrent Resolutions
An unenacted simple resolution:
Note: Since this is a very long title, it may be best to use the narrative format text, followed by the parenthetical, e.g.,
- During the session, the Senate took up A Resolution Expressing the sense of the Senate that the International Olympic Committee Should Rebid the 2022 Winter Olympic Games to be Hosted by a Country that Recognizes and Respects Human Rights (2021).
In reference list:
- A Resolution Expressing the Sense of the Senate that the International Olympic Committee Should Rebid the 2022 Winter Olympic Games to be Hosted by a Country that Recognizes and Respects Human Rights, S. Res. 13, 117th Cong. (2021).
An unenacted concurrent resolution:
Again, this is a very long title. It may be best to include it narratively, e.g.,
- In 2003, Barbara Lee introduced a concurrent resolution, Expressing the Sense of Congress that the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq of 2002 Should be Repealed (2003).
In reference list:
- Expressing the sense of Congress that the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002 Should be Repealed, H.R. Con. Res. 2, 108th Cong. (2003).
Enacted Simple and Concurrent Resolutions
Simple Resolutions and Concurrent Resolutions
Simple resolutions (from one chamber of Congress) and concurrent resolutions are cited to the volume and page number of the Congressional Record in which they appear. In the example, below, S. Res. 34 appears in volume 139 of the Congressional Record, on page 1277.
- (S. Resolution 34, 1993)
- Senate Resolution 34 (1993)
- (H.R. Con. Res. 63, 2007)
- House of Representatives Concurrent Resolution 63 (2007)
A simple Senate resolution:
- S. Res. 34, 103rd Cong., 139 Cong. Rec. 1277 (1993) (enacted). URL
A concurrent resolution:
- H.R. Con. Res. 63, 110th Cong., 153 Cong. Rec. 3843 (2007). (enacted) URL