If you are a member of a professional organization, chances are that it produces a list of fellowships and awards. Usually, you need your member number to login.
A few examples:
Professional organizations also usually sponsor fellowships (especially for research) and awards (especially for travel, including travel to their conferences).
Small Selection of Dissertation & Travel Grants
American Council of Learned Societies Fellowships (includes some opportunities for non-US citizens)
National Science Foundation (see right hand column-->)
GrantForward, A research-focussed grants database originally the University of Illinois IRIS grant search service. You can search by subject and also create a researcher profile to showcase your research and get grant recommendations.
Foundation Directory Online Largest database of funding from private foundations and corporations. Some government funding as well.
Also in print: AS 911.A2 F77 (current edition in Olin Library Reference)
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Other online opportunities
University of Chicago Fellowships Database. Searchable; allows limiting by type (dissertation write up, research grant, scholarship, etc.
Scientific Grants & Funding: compilation of funding sources you can search for research or training.
Other Funding Resources
American Association of University Women. http://www.aauw.org/tag/fellowships-and-grants/ (good source of information on opportunities for studying gender issues)
Federal Funding Agencies: http://www.osp.cornell.edu/GovtRelLinks/FedAgencies.html
National Institutes of Health.http://grants.nih.gov/grants/oer.htm
Examples of International Resources
Research councils UK office http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/pages/home.aspx
IREX - international research & exchanges boardprojects, including fellowships: http://www.irex.org/projects
ResearchResearch - ResearchResearch (London, UK) requires a paid subscription, but it does provide a venue for researchers looking for international funding options.
NSF -dissertation improvement grants
The National Science Foundation supports DDIGS (Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grants) in the following areas:
*note: all NSF dissertation proposals must go through Cornell's Office of Sponsored Funding
Do you live off-campus?
Do you contemplate needing to use databases while traveling?
Are you having difficulty getting access to licensed library resources? (i.e. databases, e-books, your library account)?
If so, try using PassKey. PassKey is a "bookmarklet" designed to give Cornell community members access to licensed library resources while they are away from campus.