United States Treaty Resources

In the context of U.S. government practice, the basic distinction between a treaty and an executive agreement is that the former has been submitted to the Senate for advice and consent whereas the latter has not. Presidents may conclude executive agreements through statutory or Constitutional authority or by a prior treaty provision.

Online Full-Text Finding Chart for U.S. Treaties & Agreements
Dates Online Source for Full-Text

1776 - 1949

Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776-1949. (Bevans)

1778 - 1949
(Treaties only)

in (1) Statutes at Large via Congressional Universe
    (choose "Legislative Histories, Bills & Laws" from left column --> check "Statutes at Large" on Keyword screen)
and in (2) American Memory (1778-1875)

1950 - 1984

United States Treaties and Other International Agreements. (UST)

1982 - ten years ago

Treaties and Other International Acts Series (TIAS)

1981 - date
(Treaties only)

in the Serial Set via Congressional Universe
Choose Advanced Search --> Check off "House & Senate Documents" --> enter "treaty doc" in first search box

1987 - most current available

KAV Agreements

Related Materials

  • Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States of America. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 1789-1875 online.
    "From its inaugural session, in addition to its legislative journal, the Senate has maintained a separate record of its executive proceedings that relate to its functions of confirming presidential nominees and consenting to the making of treaties. The Senate Executive Journal was not made public until 1828, when the Senate decided to print and publish the proceedings for all the previous Congresses and thereafter to publish the journal for each session at its close." [American Memory] Searchable and Browseable.

  • Treaty Actions. Dept. of State, 1997-2005. This site contains a record of actions taken by states in regard to international agreements. Compiled by the Office of Treaty Affairs.

  • Treaties Defeated by the Senate: a study of the struggle between President and Senate over the conduct of foreign relations, by W. Stull Holt. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1933.

  • Contemporary U.S. Foreign Policy: Documents and Commentary, edited by Elmer Plischke. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991. Olin Ref JX1405 C76
    Provides overview and analysis of US foreign policy development, both generally and in the context of specific areas and events. Supporting documentation is drawn from treaties, proclamations, Presidential doctrines, declarations, diplomatic exchanges and other sources. Indexed.