When you're writing about an image or multimedia piece in a paper or presentation, you should provide the following pieces of information in the caption and in the bibliography...if you have a list of works of art cited:
- year(s) of creation
- materials or format
- owner (such as a museum or private owner), if applicable
- if from a digital source: date you found the work online
- name of the Web site where you found it
If you're just referring to the piece in your paper, use
- materials or format
the first time you mention it, and just the creator and title thereafter.
Examples of Citing Images
If the image is from an electronic resource
Artist’s name (first and last), TITLE, year, medium, size, museum (or place where the image is held) date accessed and url.
Bibliography (remember to indent the second and subsequent lines):
Artist’s name (last and first, or just first initial), TITLE, year, medium, size, museum (or place where the image is held), date accessed and url.
If the image is in a publication
Artist’s name (first and last), TITLE, year, book title (place of publication: publisher, year), page or plate number.
Artist’s name (last and first, or just first initial), TITLE, year. In book title. Place of publication: publisher, year, page or plate number.
Chicago Style Citations
- Purdue Online Writing Lab gives excellent examples (for footnotes/endnotes and bibliographies) on how to cite using the Chicago citation style: books, periodicals, web sources, film & television, and much more.
- Examples for how to cite an image using the Chicago Style, from the Colgate University Visual Resources Library
Chicago vs. Turabian
Q. Is Chicago Style the same as Turabian Style?
A. Almost, but not quite.
Here's an in-depth explanation of the difference. Turabian is sometimes called "Chicago Style for students." The current edition of Chicago (17th) is considered equivalent to the current Turabian (9th). Comparison guide.
The Notes & Bibliography citation style is preferred in Humanities disciplines, including Art History. It requires referencing sources in footnotes and listing publication information in a bibliography. This is distinct from the author-date style, which is preferred in the social and physical sciences, and uses in-text citations plus a reference list
Use citation management/PDF organizing software to save time and energy when organizing and citing research materials.
Zotero is a free, open sourced, web-based tool for managing citation, organizing PDF's and creating bibliographies. It is a downloadable software program designed for humanities and social sciences research. Developed at the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University, it is particularly suited for historical sources.
ZoteroBib is a free, quick and easy online bibliography and citation maker that saves time and trouble. Add sources using the ZoteroBib search box. Then copy and paste the complete bibliography (or footnotes or in-text citations) into your paper in the citation style of your choice. (As great as ZoteroBib is, it isn't perfect. Check your citations carefully using citation style guides or ask a librarian for assistance.)
Ben Shahn, photographer. Itinerant photographer in Columbus, Ohio, August, 1938. Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection (Library of Congress). (accessed April 14, 2021). Source: Flickr Commons.