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ARKEO 3738: Identity in the Ancient World (Spring 2018): Cite Sources

A guide to library research

Annotated Bibliography

Cite your sources

Modern Language Association (MLA) citation style from the Purdue OWL

The Chicago Manual of Style (online). 17th ed. Chicago: U of Chicago, 1993. (Olin Reference Desk Z 253 U69x 2003; also Uris) "A standard work, thoroughly revised and updated, which serves as a how-to book for authors and editors. The basics online: Chicago Manual of Style.


Golden rule for citation:  Always consider your audience--how can I best and clearly direct my audience to the material.

  • If a title on the title page of a book or the first page of the article is in two languages, then it is correct to use both languages.  Example: Aladzhov, Andreĭ. Ezicheska Bŭlgarii︠a︡: Vlast i Obsshtestvo = Pagan Bulgaria: Power and Society. Sofii︠a︡: Nat︠s︡ionalen arkheologicheski muzeĭ, 2017.
  • If you believe your audience cannot read a second language, because it's not widely understood, for instance, you could translate a title. Use brackets to indicate translation.   Example: Aladzhov, Andreĭ. Ezicheska Bŭlgarii︠a︡: Vlast i Obsshtestvo. [Pagan Bulgaria: Power and Society]. Sofii︠a︡: Nat︠s︡ionalen arkheologicheski muzeĭ, 2017.
  • Unless you physically saw/handled an artifact or original image or original map, you cite the place the image or artifact can be viewed--book, article, web site, etc.
  • Footnotes typically go at the end of the sentence, but don't have to. Putting them elsewhere draws attention to a particular piece of information.
  • It's better to check the original source, but when that is impractical, use Cited by to indicate you are using information cited by someone else.

When in doubt, get advice from Ask a Librarian.



Manage information effectively and efficiently using free Citation Software/PDF organizers such as Zotero or Mendeley.

Cite Images

This guide to not only has excellent information about citing images but also will give you an ArtStor model citation:

Guide to Citing Library Images from Colgate University


Also useful is Cornell's Guide to Citing Images.

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