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AEM 2700: Business Communications (Spring 2015): Citation Help

Citing Sources

APA citation style

  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.)  CU Library Reference locations include Africana, Hotel, Management, Olin, and Uris Libraries at call number:  BF 76.7 .P83x 2001x. Also in ILR and Mann Reference at BF 76.7 .A51 2001.

APA Style - Bibliographic Citations

General Rules:  

Authors are listed as Last Name, First Initial, Middle Initial.  Up to 7 authors can be listed.  An organization can be an author.  If there is no author the Book/Article/Website Title will be listed first.      

Anything found online requires a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or a URL.  A DOI is like a Social Security Number for articles and is preferred in APA, but you will not always be able to find one.  If you list a URL, only use the whole URL if it is not too long.  Half a line is a good rule of thumb, otherwise just use the base part of the URL.  For example, is sufficient for any article from ProQuest.  

Bibliographic Citations should be listed in alphabetical order.  This will allow your reader to quickly flip to the Bibliography when they see an in-text citation and find the full citation. 

The second line of a citation should be indented.  This is so a reader can tell when a new citations begins. 

Use (n.d.) when no date is available.



Author(s). (Year). Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Salvi, R., & Tanaka, H. (2011). Intercultural interactions in business and management. Bern: Peter Lang.



Author(s). (Date). Article Title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), Page(s). URL.  NOTE: Use exact date for Newspaper Articles.

DiVitantonio, G., Legh-Smith, J., Millar, W., & Wilkinson, M. (2006). Meeting business objectives through adaptive information and communications technology.BT Technology Journal, 24(4), 113-120. doi:

 Needleman, S. E., Loten, A., & Simon, R. (2013, Oct 03). Small firms grapple with roadblocks. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from


Video - Use the information that you can find. 

Producer(s) Director(s). (Date). Title [Video file]. Place of Publication: Publisher. Retrieved from URL.

For Movies replace [Video file] with [Motion picture].  For a television show use [Television Broadcast].  


TEDtalks (Director). (2012, June). Jane McGonigal: The game that can give you 10 extra years of line [Video file]. Retrieved from

Fincher, D. (Director). (2010). The social network [Motion picture]. Culver City, Calif: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. 



Author(s). (Date). Article Title. Website Title. Retrieved Date of retrieval from URL.

United States Department of Labor. (2013, Dec.). Consumer Price Index. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 23 from



Author(s). (Date). Title [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from URL.

For Prezi, or other types of presentations, replace [PowerPoint slides] with the type of presentation used, for example [Prezi Presentation].

Johnson, P. D. (2014). Effective Elevator Speech. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

APA Style - In-Text (or Parenthetical) Citations

Parenthetical citations will be found in the text of your written assignments and should be found any time you write an arguement or idea that is not your own.  The basic format of a parenthetical citation is simple; (Author, Year, Page).  If you're referring to a work as a whole, then the page is not necessary.  If you are quoting something directly, then a page should be added (if it's available).

The Author gives immediate credit to the original author and tells the reader which citation to look at in the Bibliography for more information.  

The Year gives the reader an immediate gauge of how recent the information is.  It also tells the reader which publication by an author was responsible for a that idea.

The Page tells the reader exactly where to find that information in the original work.

In no author is available, use the first thing that appears in the bibliographic citation.  This should be either an organization or the title.  For example the Consumer Price index, which is compiled by the United States Departement of Labor, would look like this: (United States Department of Labor, 2014)

If you use the author's name in the text, you can just use the year and page in the parenthetical citation.  For example:

Jones (2007) argues that...

Formatting References by Hand--Video


RefWorks is a web-based program that allows you to easily collect, manage, and format bibliographic references citations and bibliographies in whatever style you want. RefWorks also works directly with Word, making it easy to import references and incorporate them into your writing, properly formatted according to the style of your choice. For more information and to sign up for an account: 

Intro to Managing Information--Video

Formatting References Using RefWorks--Video

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