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Treaties & International Agreements: Treaty Series

A guide providing basic information on locating treaties and related material online and in Olin Library only.


Pres. Truman with NATO treaty, 1949

Treaty Series Numbers

In the context of U.S. government practice, the basic distinction between a treaty and an executive agreement is that the former has been submitted to the Senate for advice and consent whereas the latter has not. Presidents may conclude executive agreements through statutory or Constitutional authority or by a prior treaty provision.

Treaty Series Numbers

Several different numbering systems are used to designate treaties and international agreements. The following chart identifies and defines the most commonly used document symbols.
AbbreviationFull NameNotes
AD Additional Documents used from 1776 to 1949 for US documents of a legal nature that do not have TS, EAS, or TIAS numbers
DOS Department of State internal number assigned by the DOS; may identify agreements that are not officially published and therefore do not have TIAS numbers; system used by Consolidated Treaties and International Agreements (CITA)
EAS Executive Agreement Series used from 1929 through 1945; replaced by TIAS
KAV Kavass Series used since 1950 for treaties and agreements which have not yet been published in the TIAS series
TIAS Treaties and Other International Acts Series used since 1946 for treaties and agreements issued singly as pamphlets (slips) by the Dept. of State
Treaty Doc. Senate Treaty Document number assigned to Senate Treaty Documents published in the U.S. Serial Set
TS Treaty Series official numbers applied to treaties and agreements by the Dept. of State through 1945; replaced by TIAS
UNTS United Nations Treaty Series many multilateral UN treaties to which the US is a party are included
UST United States Treaties & Other International Agreements used in the series of the same name; volumes published annually since 1950
*NOTE: Some formal treaties approved by the Senate may also be cited by Statute (Stat.) number, or, if rarely, by Public Law (P.L.) number.

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