An excellent, state-by-state accounting of all censuses conducted by the individual states is Lainhart, Ann S. State Census Records. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1992. (Olin Reference HA 214 .L18 1992).
Another useful reference book with information on research using census data is The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy. Revised ed. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1997. (Olin Reference CS 49 .S65x 1997) Chapter 5, Research in Census Records, is a thorough review of federal, state, and special population censuses conducted in the U.S. Most of the state census information is derived from Lainhart.
Population counts, instructions to census takers, and some maps of state census districts are available in
State Censuses: [Microfiche collection of censuses of population taken after the year 1790 by states and territories of the United States].. Millwood, NY: KTO Microfilm. (Olin Microfiche 197). 680 fiche.
Microfiche 197 is shelved in the silver halide section on the B Level of Olin Library. The reproductions of state census documents in this set are selected from and based upon the bibliography State Censuses: An Annotated Bibliography of Censuses of Population taken after the year 1790 by States and Territories of the United States. Prepared by Henry J. Dubester, Chief, Census Library Project, Library of Congress. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1948. (Olin Reference Z 7554 .U5 U63 1948; also Mann Reference)
A later edition of Dubester's bibliography is:
Library of Congress. Census Library Project. State Censuses: An Annotated Bibliography of Censuses of Population taken after the year 1790 by States and Territories of the United States. Prepared by Henry J. Dubester. New York: B. Franklin, . (Olin Reference Z 7554 .U5 U63 1969).