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Medieval Studies: A guide to library research at Cornell: Reference Sources

Latin Dictionaries

Lewis & Short Latin Dictionary from the Perseus Project

Database of latin dictionaries Integrates different types of Latin dictionaries-- modern, medieval or early-modern. In progress.

Cambridge Histories Online

Cambridge Histories Online

Excellent resource. Full text. Chapters as pdfs. Extremely high quality essays with rich footnotes and bibliography.


Oxford Resources

Oxford Bibliographies Online
Offers peer-reviewed annotated bibliographies on Classical civilization, the Middle Ages, philosophy, and many other subjects.

Medieval Encyclopedias

Specialized Scholarly Medieval Encyclopedias

Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

The encyclopedia of Medieval literature in Britain. 4 volumes. 2017. Part of The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Literature. (Olin Library Reference PR260 .E53 2017)

Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 13 volumes. 1982-1988. (Olin Reference D 114 D55+) Articles cover roughly the years 500-1500 A.D. in the lands of the Latin West, the Slavic world, Asia Minor, the lands of the Caliphate in the East, and the Muslim-Christian areas of North Africa. Some entries are only of definition length (e.g. Avignon), but others are more historical and lengthy (e.g. Byzantine Empire, Constantine I, Arms and Armor). Bibliographies are mostly in English.

Medieval Archaeology: an Encyclopedia. 2001. (Olin Reference D125.M42x 2001+) A substantive up-to-date encyclopedia of medieval archaeology, with entries for sites (Sutton Hoo, e.g.), areas (Pre-Viking Scandinavia), ethnic/culture groups (Vikings, Visigoths), artifacts (Stoneware) and activities (Hunting, Cloth-making).

The Catholic encyclopedia and The New Catholic Encyclopedia Beyond the subject of Catholicism to include science, literature, art and civilization.  Articles sometimes include bibliography of primary and secondary sources.

The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England. 2nd ed. People, places, social groups. Most articles contain concise bibliographies.

Medieval England: An Encyclopedia. 1998.(Olin Reference DA 129 .M43x 1998) Articles vary in length but all are accompanied by bibliographies.

Medieval Ireland : an encyclopedia. 2005. (Olin Library Reference DA933 .M43 2005 +) Articles vary in length but all are accompanied by bibliographies.

Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia. 1993. (Olin Reference DL30 .M48+ and Kroch Rare Reference). Articles vary in length but all are accompanied by bibliographies.

Medieval Germany: An Encyclopedia 2001. (Olin Library Reference DD126 .M43x 2001 +)

Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia 2004. (Olin Library Reference Oversize DG443 .M43x 2004 +)

Medieval Jewish Civilization: An Encyclopedia 2003. (Olin LIbrary Reference Oversize DS124 .M386 2003 +)

Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia 2003.  (Olin Library Reference Oversize DP99 .M33x 2003 +)

Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia 2006 (Olin Library Reference Oversize DS36.85 .M434 2006 +)

Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: an Encyclopedia. 2006.  (Olin Library Reference Oversize HQ1147.E85 W66 2006)

Ancient Europe 8000 B.C.--A.D. 1000: encyclopedia of the Barbarian world. 2004. Two volumes. (Olin Library Reference D62 .A52x 2004+)

Encyclopedia of barbarian Europe: society in transformation.  2003. (Olin Library Reference D135 .F73x 2003+)

Medieval folklore : a guide to myths, legends, tales, beliefs, and customs. (Olin Library Reference GR35 .M43 2002)

Trade, travel, and exploration in the Middle Ages: an encyclopedia (Olin Library Reference HF1001 .T7x 2000 +)

Women in the Middle Ages: an encyclopedia. (Olin Library Reference HQ1143 .W643 2004)

Antiquity Encyclopedias

Selected Specialized Scholarly Encyclopedias on Antiquity

Oxford Classical Dictionary (5th edition)
Much more than a dictionary. An excellent source for sources on all aspects of the Classical World.

 The historians of late antiquity, Routledge, 2002.

Encyclopedia of early Christianity c1997 Olin Library Reference (Non-Circulating) + BR162.2 .E56 1997

The Oxford dictionary of Byzantium

Encyclopedia of the Byzantine Empire. 2004 Olin Library Oversize DF504.5 .L38 2004 +

The Cambridge companion to the Roman historians c2009

Oxford Art Online provides web access to the entire text of The Dictionary of Art, ed. Jane Turner (1996, 34 vols.) and The Oxford Companion to Western Art, ed. Hugh Brigstocke (2001). Articles, and over 1,500 thumbnail art images and line drawings, extensive image links, and sophisticated search and navigation tools.

Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Excellent on all aspects of philosophy and history of ancient science.

Ancient Writers Greece and Rome. 1982 (Olin Reference PA 3002.A54) Grant, Michael, and Rachel Kitzinger.

Sienkewicz, Thomas J. Encyclopedia of the Ancient World. 3 vols. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press, 2002. (Olin Reference CB311 .E54x 2002) 

The Virgil Encyclopedia

Literature and Language

Literature Online
A database of secondary scholarship, primary texts, and extremely useful reference sources.

Mediae Latinitatis lexicon minus
Translations of Latin keywords.

BrillOnline Etymological dictionaries
Etymological dictionary of the Armenian inherited lexicon
Cuneiform Luvian lexicon
Etymological dictionary of Greek
Etymological dictionary of the Hittite inherited lexicon
Etymological dictionary of the Iranian verb
Etymological dictionary of Latin and the other Italic languages
Old Frisian Etymological dictionary
Etymological dictionary of proto-Celtic
Etymological dictionary of proto-Germanic
Etymological dictionary of proto-Nostratic
Etymological dictionary of the Slavic inherited lexicon
A dictionary of Tocharian B.



The Church

Chronology and Geography

The library has an outstanding collection of atlases which can be found in the Map Collection and Olin. Examples include:


Flicker photo by teachernz

Superior to Wikipedia on most topics & disciplines:


Gale virtual reference library 

Sage Reference Online

Oxford Reference Online